Surface irregularities in titanium marine parts formed by the particulate injection moulding process
In this study, a structural hold down component was designed and produced using the particulate injection moulding (PIM) process. The material of choice was titanium due not only to the material properties but also due to the desire to create custom-made components for a state-of-the-art marine vessel, Earthrace 2.
On removal from the mould, the green parts were seen to have an irregular surface on the top face. Known as surface bloom, it can be seen during moulding of single-phase commodity polymers as a result of changes in the polymer density, due to shear stresses and irregularities of turbulent flow.
Literature suggests the surface bloom is a result of a separation between the two phases, but the preliminary findings show little evidence of this within the sectioned profile. The sintered parts were sectioned, and inspection of the surfaces was done using metallographic techniques. The use of CAD models enabled the defect to be modelled and the models provided a more likely scenario. It was further confirmed that there were no through part defects present and although the surface irregularities were caused by separation of the two-phases, the effect was restricted to the outer surface of the parts.
Authors who publish with Technologies for Lightweight Structures (TLS) agree to the following terms:
The corresponding authors confirm with their imprimatur that the article’s publication in Technologies for Lightweight Structures and the copyright terms have been approved by all the other coauthors.
Authors retain copyright and grant Technologies for Lightweight Structures the right of first publication.
If the paper is accepted for publication the content is licenced under a Creative Commons Licence “Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)”. This permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is otherwise in compliance with the licence. Alternative Creative Commons Licences may be assigned in duly justified cases after consultation with the publisher (mail to: email@example.com).
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in Technologies for Lightweight Structures.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post the peer-reviewed, pre-copyedited version (post-print) of their articles online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access). If authors wish to republish an article, they are kindly asked to include the following acknowledgment as well as a link to the original source of publication in Technologies for Lightweight Structures to secure consistent citations:
This is a peer-reviewed, pre-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication in the open access journal Technologies for Lightweight Structures (TLS). The original publication with full bibliographic citation is available online at: xxx [insert DOI received upon publication].
For further questions, feel free to contact us via e-mail.